Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were determined for three strains of aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacteria isolated from soil. The sequences of two strains (NS89(T) and NS102) were identical for approximately 1500 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three strains belonged to the α-1 subclass of the Proteobacteria, constituting one line of descent. The three strains are comparatively related to Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus, which is an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and the DNA-DNA relatedness allow the proposal of two new genera, Craurococcus gen. nov. and Paracraurococcus gen. nov. The type species are Craurococcus roseus sp. nov. and Paracraurococcus tuber sp. nov., and their type strains are NS130(T) (= JCM 9933(T)) and NS89(T) (= JCM 9931(T)), respectively.