Transcriptome analysis of human cholangiocytes exposed to carcinogenic 1,2-dichloropropane in the presence of macrophages in vitro

Abigail Ekuban, Shigeyuki Shichino, Cai Zong, Frederick Adams Ekuban, Kazuo Kinoshita, Sahoko Ichihara, Kouji Matsushima, Gaku Ichihara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), a synthetic organic solvent, has been implicated in causality of cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer). 1,2-DCP-induced occupational cholangiocarcinoma show a different carcinogenic process compared to common cholangiocarcinoma, but its mechanism remains elusive. We reported previously that exposure of MMNK-1 cholangiocytes co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages, but not monocultured MMNK-1 cholangiocytes, to 1,2-DCP induced activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression, DNA damage and ROS production. The aim of this study was to identify relevant biological processes or target genes expressed in response to 1,2-DCP, using an in vitro system where cholangiocytes are co-cultured with macrophages. The co-cultured cells were exposed to 1,2-DCP at 0, 0.1 or 0.4 mM for 24 h, and then the cell lysates were assessed by transcriptome analysis. 1,2-DCP upregulated the expression of base excision repair genes in MMNK-1 cholangiocytes in the co-cultures, whereas it upregulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes in THP-1 macrophages. Activation of the base excision repair pathway might result from the previously observed DNA damage in MMNK-1 cholangiocytes co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages, although involvement of other mechanisms such as DNA replication, cell death or other types of DNA repair was not disproved. Cross talk interactions between cholangiocytes and macrophages leading to DNA damage in the cholangiocytes should be explored.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11222
JournalScientific reports
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

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