The photoemission characteristics of a NEA InGaN photocathode by simultaneously supplying Cs and O2

Masahiro Kashima, Yuya Itokawa, Toshiya Kanai, Daiki Sato, Atsushi Koizumi, Hokuto Iijima, Tomohiro Nishitani, Yoshio Honda, Hiroshi Amano, Takashi Meguro

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A high quantum efficiency (QE) can be obtained on negative electron affinity (NEA) surfaces. It is well-known that NEA surfaces can be formed on semiconductor materials such as GaAs by the alternating supply of cesium (Cs) and oxygen (O2), which is called the yo-yo method. While GaN and related compounds such as InGaN are expected to realize an NEA photocathode with a long lifetime, the surface reactions between GaAs and nitride semiconductors are completely different with respect to the increasing rate of QE induced by the supply of O2. In addition, the surface processes of photoemission from NEA nitride semiconductors have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a higher QE was achieved in InGaN by simultaneously supplying Cs and O2 instead of using the conventional yo-yo method. The possible Cs adsorption states in relation to the photoemission are also discussed based on the QE tendencies and the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra of the NEA surfaces formed under elevated temperature conditions. This study suggests that the Cs oxide species, which is one of the key compounds for imparting the NEA nature, decomposes at approximately 350 °C and that the InGaN-Cs2O2 structure is a possible candidate for NEA photocathodes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number153882
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2022


  • InGaN
  • NEA activation
  • NEA photocathode
  • Negative electron affinity surface
  • Temperature desorption programmed method


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