Syntheses of the novel oligodiaminosaccharides, α-(1→4)-linked- 2,6-diamino-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucopyranose oligomers, and their interactions with nucleic acid duplexes DNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and DNA-RNA are described. Monomers to tetramers of oligodiaminoglucose derivatives having α-glycosyl bonds were successfully synthesized using a chain elongation cycle including glycosylation reactions of a 6-phthalimide glycosyl donor. UV melting experiments for a variety of nucleic acid duplexes in the absence and presence of the oligodiaminosaccharides were performed. The synthesized oligodiaminosaccharides exhibited notable thermodynamic stabilization effects on A-type RNA-RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes, whereas B-type DNA-DNA duplexes were not stabilized by the synthesized oligodiaminosaccharides. Among the oligodiaminosaccharides, the tetramer exhibited the highest ability to stabilize A-type duplexes, and the increase in T m values induced by the tetramer were higher than those induced by neomycin B and tobramycin, which are known aminoglycosides having ability to bind and stabilize a variety of RNA molecules. CD spectrometry experiments revealed that the oligodiaminosaccharides caused small structural changes in RNA-RNA duplexes, whereas no appreciable changes were observed in the structure of DNA-DNA duplexes. ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) experiments demonstrated that the amount of heat generated by the interaction between RNA-RNA duplexes and the tetradiaminosaccharides was approximately double that generated by that between DNA-DNA duplexes and the tetradiaminosaccharides. These results strongly suggested the existence of an A-type nucleic acid specific-binding mode of the oligodiaminosaccharides, which bind to these duplexes and cause small structural changes.