Bacteriophage (denoted as phage) infection in the bacterial fermentation industry is a major problem, leading to the loss of fermented products such as alcohol and lactic acid. Currently, the prevention of phage infection is limited to biological approaches, which are difficult to apply in an industrial setting. Herein, we report an alternative chemical approach using ground Rh-doped SrTiO3 (denoted as g-STO:Rh) as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst. The g-STO:Rh showed selective inactivation of phage without bactericidal activity when irradiated with visible light (λ > 440 nm). After inactivation, the color of g-STO:Rh changed from gray to purple, suggesting that the Rh valence state partially changed from 3+ to 4+ induced by photocatalysis, as confirmed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. To study the effect of the Rh4+ ion on phage inactivation under visible-light irradiation, the survival rate of phage for g-STO:Rh was compared to that for ground Rh,Sb-codoped SrTiO3 (denoted as g-STO:Rh,Sb), where the change of Rh valence state from 3+ to 4+ is almost suppressed under visible-light irradiation due to charge compensation by the Sb5+ ion. Only g-STO:Rh effectively inactivated phage, which indicated that Rh4+ ion induced by photocatalysis particularly contributed to phage inactivation under visible-light irradiation. These results suggested that g-STO:Rh has potential as an antiphage material in bacterial fermentation.
- Rh ion
- bacteriophage inactivation
- ball milling
- ground Rh-doped SrTiO
- visible-light-driven photocatalyst