A physical reservoir device with tunable transient dynamics is strongly required to process time-series data with various timescales generated in the edge region. In this study, we proposed using the dielectric relaxation at an electrode–ionic liquid (IL) interface as the physical reservoir by making the most of designable physicochemical properties of ILs. The transient dynamics of a Au/IL/Au reservoir device were characterized as a function of the alkyl chain length of cations in the IL (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide). By considering a weighted sum of exponentials expressing a superposition of Debye-type relaxations, the transient dynamics were well reconstructed. Although such complex dynamics governed by multiple relaxation processes were observed, each extracted relaxation time scales with a power law as a function of IL’s viscosity determined by the alkyl chain length of cations. This indicates that the relaxation processes are characterized by bulk properties of the ILs that obey the widely received Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law. We demonstrated that the 4-bit time-series signals were transformed into the 16 classifiable data, and the data transformation, which enables to achieve higher accuracy in an image classification task, can be easily optimized according to the features of the input signals by controlling the IL’s viscosity.