Relationship between Subjective and Biological Responses to Comfortable and Uncomfortable Sounds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Various kinds of biological sensors are now embedded in wearable devices and data on human biological information have recently become more widespread. Among various environmental stressors, sound has emotional and biological impacts on humans, and it is worthwhile to investigate the relationship between the subjective impressions of and biological responses to such sounds. In this study, the relationship between subjective and biological responses to acoustic stimuli with two contrasting kinds of sounds, a murmuring river sound and white noise, was investigated. The subjective and biological responses were measured during the presentation of the sounds. Compared with the murmuring river sound, the white noise had a significantly decreased EEG-related index of α-EEG and HRV-related index of SD2/SD1. The correlation between each index of subjective and biological responses indicated that α-EEG was highly correlated with the results of subjective evaluation. However, based on a more detailed analysis with clustering, some subjects showed different biological responses in each trial since they felt the sound was powerful when listening to the murmuring river sound, as well as feeling that it was beautiful. It was suggested that biological responses to sound exposure may be affected by the impression of the sound, which varies by individual.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3417
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • electroencephalography
  • heart rate variability
  • subjective evaluation


Dive into the research topics of 'Relationship between Subjective and Biological Responses to Comfortable and Uncomfortable Sounds'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this