Nanoscale transformation of sp2 to sp3 of graphite by slow highly charged ion irradiation

T. Meguro, A. Hida, Y. Koguchi, S. Miyamoto, Y. Yamamoto, H. Takai, K. Maeda, Y. Aoyagi

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Nanoscale transformation of electronic states by highly charged ion (HCI) impact on graphite surfaces is described. The high potential energy of slow HCI, which induces multiple emission of electrons from the surface, provides a strong modification of the electronic states of the local area upon graphite surfaces. The HCI impact and the subsequent surface treatment either by electron injection from a scanning tunneling microscopy tip or by He-Cd laser irradiation induce a localized transition from sp2 to sp3 hybridization in graphite, resulting in the formation of nanoscale diamond-like structures (nanodiamond) at the impact region. From Raman spectroscopic measurements on sp2 related peaks, it is found that the HCI irradiation creates vacancy complexes in contrast to ions having a lower charge state, which generate single vacancies. It is of interest that a single impact of HCI creates one nanodiamond structure, suggesting potential applications of HCI in nanoscale material processing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-174
Number of pages5
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2003
EventSHIM 2002 - Giardini Naxos, Italy
Duration: 19 May 200223 May 2002


  • Diamond
  • Graphite
  • Highly charged ion
  • Nanostructure


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