A multiplication sampling moire (MSM) method was proposed for robust deformation distribution measurement by performing phase analysis of the second harmonic (second-order frequency) of a single grating pattern. The MSM method has a very strong noise immunity because the second harmonic spectrum is far from the low-frequency region of the background noise in the frequency domain. Phase analysis of an experimental grid image on a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) specimen indicated that the MSM method effectively solved the problem of non-negligible phase measurement errors of conventional methods that extract the fundamental frequency of the grating, in the case of severe local noise. The displacement and strain distributions of CFRP in a tensile test were successfully measured. This method is suitable for deformation measurement of various composite materials.