It is widely accepted that caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan and suppresses various pathophysiological changes. CR suppresses growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor signaling and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, activates sirtuin and enhances mitochondrial redox regulation, but the exact mechanisms are still under debate. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of CR using evidence from studies of animals that were genetically modified according to recent advances in molecular and genetic technologies, from the viewpoint of the adaptive response hypothesis proposed by Holliday (1989). We then explain the beneficial actions of CR, classified according to whether they operate under feeding or fasting conditions.
- Caloric restriction
- Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1
- Mitochondria/redox regulation
- Remodeling of white adipose tissue