Kidney outcomes and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes exhibiting non-albuminuric kidney insufficiency

Yui Yamamoto, Ko Hanai, Tomomi Mori, Yoichi Yokoyama, Naoshi Yoshida, Hidekazu Murata, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Tetsuya Babazono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aim/hypothesis: It remains unclear whether people with diabetes exhibiting non-albuminuric kidney insufficiency have higher risk of kidney function decline and mortality compared with those exhibiting preserved kidney function without albuminuria. Furthermore, information regarding the incidence of albuminuria in people with this unique phenotype is sparse. Here, we aimed to elucidate the risk of the kidney outcomes and all-cause mortality in people with diabetes exhibiting non-albuminuric kidney insufficiency. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 8320 Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes were classified into four groups based on the presence of albuminuria and kidney insufficiency at baseline, defined as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio of equal to or above 30 mg/g and eGFR of less than 60 ml min−1 1.73 m−2, respectively. The primary composite kidney endpoint was a 50% decrease in eGFR from baseline or the initiation of kidney replacement therapy. The annual percentage change in eGFR slope and progression of albuminuria category were evaluated as the secondary and tertiary kidney endpoints, respectively. All-cause death was also set as the endpoint. Results: Compared with people exhibiting non-albuminuric preserved kidney function, those with non-albuminuric kidney insufficiency had the higher risk for the primary kidney endpoint (HR 4.1; 95% CI 2.5, 6.7; p < 0.001), steep percentage change in eGFR slope (-1.96%/year vs -1.36%/year, p < 0.001), incidence of albuminuria (HR 2.1; 1.7, 2.6; p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.5; 1.2, 2.0; p = 0.003). In the sensitivity analyses treating the incidence of albuminuria as a competing risk, people with non-albuminuric kidney insufficiency still had higher risk for the primary kidney endpoint and all-cause mortality than those with non-albuminuric preserved kidney function (subdistribution HR 2.8; 1.4, 5.6; p = 0.004; and 1.6; 1.1, 2.2; p = 0.014, respectively). Conclusions/interpretation: People with type 2 diabetes exhibiting non-albuminuric kidney insufficiency had poorer kidney outcomes and life prognosis than those exhibiting non-albuminuric preserved kidney function. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-245
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetologia
Volume65
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Albuminuria
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • GFR
  • Kidney function

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