Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer intrinsically confers satisfactory clinical outcomes in response to endocrine therapy. However, a significant proportion of patients with ER+ breast cancer do not respond well to this treatment. Therefore, to evaluate the effects of endocrine therapy, there is a need for identification of novel markers that can be used at the time of diagnosis for predicting clinical outcomes, especially for early-stage and late recurrence. Solute carrier family 20 member 1 (SLC20A1) is a sodium/inorganic phosphate symporter that has been proposed to be a viable prognostic marker for the luminal A and luminal B types of ER+ breast cancer. In the present study, we examined the possible association of SLC20A1 expression with tumor staging, endocrine therapy and chemotherapy in the luminal A and luminal B subtypes of breast cancer. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between SLC20A1 expression and late recurrence in patients with luminal A and luminal B breast cancer following endocrine therapy. We showed that patients with higher levels of SLC20A1 expression (SLC20A1high) exhibited poorer clinical outcomes in those with tumor stage I luminal A breast cancer. In addition, this SLC20A1high subgroup of patients exhibited less responses to endocrine therapy, specifically in those with the luminal A and luminal B subtypes of breast cancer. However, patients with SLC20A1high showed good clinical outcomes following chemotherapy. Patients tested to be in the SLC20A1high group at the time of diagnosis also showed a higher incidence of recurrence compared with those with lower expression levels of SLC20A1, at >15 years for luminal A breast cancer and at 10–15 years for luminal B breast cancer. Therefore, we conclude that SLC20A1high can be used as a prognostic biomarker for predicting the efficacy of endocrine therapy and late recurrence for ER+ breast cancer.