Turbulent Taylor-vortex flows over regularly spaced square ribs mounted on a rotating inner cylinder surface were investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) for a Reynolds number of 3200 (based on the inner-wall velocity and the gap width between two cylinders) in an apparatus with an inner-to-outer radius ratio of 0.617, while varying the streamwise interval of the ribs. We examined the flow and pressure fields around each rib, focusing on the recirculation zone, the frictional drag coefficient, and the pressure (form) drag. Our results for the Taylor-Couette flows were compared to DNS for plane Poiseuille flows over ribbed surfaces performed by Leonardi et al. (2003). We determined the qualitative consistency between them with respect to the roughness effect, which depends significantly on the rib interval, but the rate of increase in the flow resistance was remarkably dampened by roughness in the present flows. Taylor vortices remaining over roughened cylinder surfaces were found to induce quick pressure recovery behind each rib, leading to less pressure drag and an enhanced backflow in the recirculation zone.