Development of the detector simulation framework for the Wideband Hybrid X-ray Imager onboard FORCE

Hiromasa Suzuki, Tsubasa Tamba, Hirokazu Odaka, Aya Bamba, Kouichi Hagino, Ayaki Takeda, Koji Mori, Takahiro Hida, Masataka Yukumoto, Yusuke Nishioka, Takeshi G. Tsuru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


FORCE is a Japan–US space-based astronomy mission for an X-ray imaging spectroscopy in an energy range of 1–80 keV. The Wideband Hybrid X-ray Imager (WHXI), which is the main focal plane detector, will use a hybrid semiconductor imager stack composed of silicon and cadmium telluride (CdTe). The silicon imager will be a certain type of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel sensor, named the X-ray pixel (XRPIX) series. Since the sensor has a small pixel size (30–36 μm) and a thick sensitive region (300–500 μm), understanding the detector response is not trivial and is important in order to optimize the camera design and to evaluate the scientific capabilities. We have developed a framework to simulate observations of celestial sources with semiconductor sensors. Our simulation framework was tested and validated by comparing our simulation results to laboratory measurements using the XRPIX 6H sensor. The simulator well reproduced the measurement results with reasonable physical parameters of the sensor including an electric field structure, a Coulomb repulsion effect on the carrier diffusion, and arrangement of the degraded regions. This framework is also applicable to future XRPIX updates including the one which will be part of the WHXI, as well as various types of semiconductor sensors.


  • Astronomy
  • Detector response
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Silicon-on-insulator technology
  • X-ray

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