The continuous monitoring of sweat lactate enables the real-time detection of the lactate threshold, that is, the change from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Therefore, it is important to optimize the training of athletes and physical exercise of rehabilitation patients and the elderly and to control the exertion of high-performance workers such as firefighters. In this study, we developed a lactate sensing system using a screen-printed sensor based on graft-polymerized MgO-templated carbon onto which lactate oxidase and 1,2-naphthoquinone were immobilized. Additionally, the lactate sensing system features an integrated microfluidic sweat collector fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane. With a lactate detection limit of 0.3 mM and a dynamic range of up to 50 mM, the developed system is suitable for the detection of the lactate threshold. Moreover, the lactate sensing system developed in this study is lightweight, should be comfortable to wear on the skin, and exhibits a sensing performance that is adequate for the continuous monitoring of sweat lactate.
- Continuous sweat lactate monitoring
- Graft polymerization
- Lactate oxidase
- Mesoporous carbon