2,5-Bis(diarylethenyl)thiophenes (1) and their bithiophene (2) and terthiophene (3) homologues were designed as a new series of violene/cyanine-hybrid-type electrochromic materials. Alkoxyphenyl and dialkylaminophenyl groups are used as the aryl group in the cyanine parts of 1/2/3O and 1/2/3N, respectively, which emit fluorescence in the neutral state but not in the oxidized state. Voltammetric analyses of 18 newly prepared electron donors show that they all undergo two reversible one-electron oxidations. Redox potentials, UV-vis spectral features, and fluorescence quantum yields are important parameters for characterizing the present electrochromic behavior with a fluorescence response, and can be finely tuned by changing aryl groups in the cyanine part, the number of thiophene rings in the violene part, and the alkyl-chain length of the alkoxyphenyl or diaklylaminophenyl groups (R = CH3, C8H17, C16H33), which makes this a versatile platform for the design of novel electrochromic materials.
- Molecular response system
- Redox system