ATP and ADP enhance DNA damage repair in γ-irradiated BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells through activation of P2X7 and P2Y12 receptors

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Abstract

Agents that promote DNA repair may be useful as radioprotectants to minimize side effects such as radiation pneumonia caused by damage to normal cells during radiation therapy to treat lung cancer. We have reported that extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are involved in the P2 or P1 receptor-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) after γ-irradiation. Here, we investigated the effects of ATP, UTP, GTP, ITP and their metabolites on the γH2AX/53BP1 focus formation in nuclei (a measure of γ-irradiation-induced DDR) and the survival of γ-irradiated immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Fluorescence immunostaining showed that ATP and ADP increase DDR and DNA repair, and exhibit radioprotective effects as evaluated by colony formation assay. These effects of ATP or ADP were blocked by inhibitors of P2X7 or P2Y12 receptor, respectively, and by ERK1/2 inhibitor. ATP and ADP enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by suppressing MKP-1 and MKP-3 expression after γ-irradiation. These results indicate that ATP and ADP exhibit radioprotective effects by phosphorylation of ERK1/2 via activation of P2X7 and P2Y12 receptors, respectively, to promote γ-irradiation-induced DDR and DNA repair. ATP and ADP appear to be candidates for radioprotectants to reduce damage to non-cancerous cells during lung cancer radiotherapy by promoting DDR and DNA repair.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115240
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume407
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2020

Keywords

  • DNA Damage
  • Lung Cell
  • Nucleotide
  • P2 Receptor
  • Radiation
  • Radioprotectants

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