Association between the ratio of serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and acute coronary syndrome in non-obese patients with coronary risk factor: A multicenter cross-sectional study

Yuji Nishizaki, Kazunori Shimada, Shigemasa Tani, Takayuki Ogawa, Jiro Ando, Masao Takahashi, Masato Yamamoto, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Katsumi Miyauchi, Ken Nagao, Atsushi Hirayama, Michihiro Yoshimura, Issei Komuro, Ryozo Nagai, Hiroyuki Daida

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Abstract

Background: Previous studies have reported that being overweight, obese, or underweight is a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, CVD also occurs in subjects with ideal body mass index (BMI). Recently, the balance of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has received attention as a risk marker for CVD but, so far, no study has been conducted that investigates the association between BMI and the balance of n-3/n-6 PUFAs for CVD risk. Methods: We evaluated the association between n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in three BMI-based groups (< 25: low BMI, 25-27.5: moderate BMI, and ≥ 27.5: high BMI) that included 1666 patients who visited the cardiovascular medicine departments of five hospitals located in urban areas in Japan. Results: The prevalence of ACS events was 9.2, 7.3, and 10.3% in the low, moderate, and high BMI groups, respectively. We analyzed the relationship between ACS events and several factors, including docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid (DHA/AA) ratio by multivariate logistic analyses. In the low BMI group, a history of smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40-4.35) and low DHA/AA ratio (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12-0.74) strongly predicted ACS. These associations were also present in the moderate BMI group but the magnitude of the association was much weaker (ORs are 1.47 [95% CI: 0.54-4.01] for smoking and 0.63 [95% CI: 0.13-3.10] for DHA/AA). In the high BMI group, the association of DHA/AA (OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 0.48-8.24) was reversed and only high HbA1c (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.08) strongly predicted ACS. The interaction test for OR estimates (two degrees of freedom) showed moderate evidence for reverse DHA/AA ratio-ACS associations among the BMI groups (P = 0.091). Conclusions: DHA/AA ratio may be a useful marker for risk stratification of ACS, especially in non-obese patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number160
JournalBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Apr 2020

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Keywords

  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Arachidonic acid
  • Body mass index
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

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Nishizaki, Y., Shimada, K., Tani, S., Ogawa, T., Ando, J., Takahashi, M., Yamamoto, M., Shinozaki, T., Miyazaki, T., Miyauchi, K., Nagao, K., Hirayama, A., Yoshimura, M., Komuro, I., Nagai, R., & Daida, H. (2020). Association between the ratio of serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and acute coronary syndrome in non-obese patients with coronary risk factor: A multicenter cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 20(1), [160]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01445-w