This paper investigates the mechanisms of thermosetting and simultaneous hydrogen desorption of liquid 1-butanol polymer composed during a plasma-induced reaction. A transparent liquid 1-butanol polymer consisting of partially dissociated 1-butanol, oxygen, and nitrogen gradually gains viscosity at less than 50 °C and transforms to a solid between 100 and 150 °C. This polymer also traps at least 0.225 mass % hydrogen during its composition and thermally desorbs the hydrogen between 26 and 150 °C. Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) and FTIR analyses indicate that 11 wt % nitrogen fixed from the air is the principal component in the formation of stable 3-D bridge structures and the resultant thermosetting of the polymer. Thermal-desorption analysis and electrical resistivity measurements also support the theory that some hydrogen is electrically trapped as quasi-stable ions around negatively polarized OH and/or C=O bonds in the polymer, contributing to both electrical conductivity and the desorption of hydrogen.