This is the first report demonstrating proof of concept for the passive, non-invasive extraction and in situ potentiometric detection of human sweat chloride ions (Cl− ions) using a stable printed planar liquid-junction reference electrode-integrated hydrogel-based touch-sensor pad without activities such as exercise to induce perspiration, environmental temperature control, or requiring cholinergic drug administration. The sensor pad was composed entirely of a screen-printed bare Ag/AgCl-based chloride ion-selective electrode and a planar liquid-junction Ag/AgCl reference electrode, which were fully covered by an agarose hydrogel in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). When human skin contacted the hydrogel pad, sweat Cl− ions were continuously extracted into the gel, followed by in situ potentiometric detection. The planar liquid-junction Ag/AgCl reference electrode had a polymer-based KCl-saturated inner electrolyte layer to stabilize the potential of the Ag/AgCl electrode even with a substantial change in the chloride ion concentration in the hydrogel pad. We expect this fully screen-printed sensor to achieve the low-cost passive and non-invasive daily monitoring of human Cl− ions in sweat in the future.
- Printed electronics
- Sweat analysis