A neuroprotective compound (2) was isolated from the culture broth of the dutomycin (1) producer Streptomyces sp. RAP78. The molecular formula of 2 was established as C44H55NO16 by high-resolution FAB-MS. The structure was determined to be a new dutomycin derivative possessing an acetimidoyl group in place of an acetyl group by NMR spectroscopic analysis. 13-Deoxo-13-iminodutomycin (2) but not dutomycin (1) protected C6 rat glioma cells and N18-RE-105 rat primary retina-mouse neuroblastoma hybrid cells from glutamate-induced toxicity with EC50s of 0.12 µM and 0.72 µM, respectively.